HYMN XC. Puruṣa. – Rig Veda – Book 10
सहस्रशीर्षा पुरुषः सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात |
सभूमिं विश्वतो वर्त्वात्यतिष्ठद दशाङगुलम ||
पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं यद भूतं यच्च भव्यम |
उताम्र्तत्वस्येशानो यदन्नेनातिरोहति ||
एतावानस्य महिमातो जयायांश्च पूरुषः |
पादो.अस्यविश्वा भूतानि तरिपादस्याम्र्तं दिवि ||
तरिपादूर्ध्व उदैत पुरुषः पादो.अस्येहाभवत पुनः |
ततो विष्वं वयक्रामत साशनानशने अभि ||
तस्माद विराळ अजायत विराजो अधि पूरुषः |
स जातोत्यरिच्यत पश्चाद भूमिमथो पुरः ||
यत पुरुषेण हविषा देवा यज्ञमतन्वत |
वसन्तोस्यासीदाज्यं गरीष्म इध्मः शरद धविः ||
तं यज्ञं बर्हिषि परौक्षन पुरुषं जातमग्रतः |
तेन देवा अयजन्त साध्या रषयश्च ये ||
तस्माद यज्ञात सर्वहुतः सम्भ्र्तं पर्षदाज्यम |
पशून्तांश्चक्रे वायव्यानारण्यान गराम्याश्च ये ||
तस्माद यज्ञात सर्वहुत रचः सामानि जज्ञिरे |
छन्दांसिजज्ञिरे तस्माद यजुस्तस्मादजायत ||
तस्मादश्वा अजायन्त ये के चोभयादतः |
गावो हजज्ञिरे तस्मात तस्माज्जाता अजावयः ||
यत पुरुषं वयदधुः कतिधा वयकल्पयन |
मुखं किमस्य कौ बाहू का ऊरू पादा उच्येते ||
बराह्मणो.अस्य मुखमासीद बाहू राजन्यः कर्तः |
ऊरूतदस्य यद वैश्यः पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत ||
चन्द्रमा मनसो जातश्चक्षोः सूर्यो अजायत |
मुखादिन्द्रश्चाग्निश्च पराणाद वायुरजायत ||
नाभ्या आसीदन्तरिक्षं शीर्ष्णो दयौः समवर्तत |
पद्भ्यां भूमिर्दिशः शरोत्रात तथा लोकानकल्पयन ||
सप्तास्यासन परिधयस्त्रिः सप्त समिधः कर्ताः |
देवायद यज्ञं तन्वाना अबध्नन पुरुषं पशुम ||
यज्ञेन यज्ञमयजन्त देवास्तानि धर्माणि परथमान्यासन |
ते ह नाकं महिमानः सचन्त यत्र पूर्वे साध्याःसन्ति देवाः ||
sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt |
sabhūmiṃ viśvato vṛtvātyatiṣṭhad daśāṅghulam ||
puruṣa evedaṃ sarvaṃ yad bhūtaṃ yacca bhavyam |
utāmṛtatvasyeśāno yadannenātirohati ||
etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca pūruṣaḥ |
pādo.asyaviśvā bhūtāni tripādasyāmṛtaṃ divi ||
tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ |
tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi ||
tasmād virāḷ ajāyata virājo adhi pūruṣaḥ |
sa jātoatyaricyata paścād bhūmimatho puraḥ ||
yat puruṣeṇa haviṣā devā yajñamatanvata |
vasantoasyāsīdājyaṃ ghrīṣma idhmaḥ śarad dhaviḥ ||
taṃ yajñaṃ barhiṣi praukṣan puruṣaṃ jātamaghrataḥ |
tena devā ayajanta sādhyā ṛṣayaśca ye ||
tasmād yajñāt sarvahutaḥ sambhṛtaṃ pṛṣadājyam |
paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān ghrāmyāśca ye ||
tasmād yajñāt sarvahuta ṛcaḥ sāmāni jajñire |
chandāṃsijajñire tasmād yajustasmādajāyata ||
tasmādaśvā ajāyanta ye ke cobhayādataḥ |
ghāvo hajajñire tasmāt tasmājjātā ajāvayaḥ ||
yat puruṣaṃ vyadadhuḥ katidhā vyakalpayan |
mukhaṃ kimasya kau bāhū kā ūrū pādā ucyete ||
brāhmaṇo.asya mukhamāsīd bāhū rājanyaḥ kṛtaḥ |
ūrūtadasya yad vaiśyaḥ padbhyāṃ śūdro ajāyata ||
candramā manaso jātaścakṣoḥ sūryo ajāyata |
mukhādindraścāghniśca prāṇād vāyurajāyata ||
nābhyā āsīdantarikṣaṃ śīrṣṇo dyauḥ samavartata |
padbhyāṃ bhūmirdiśaḥ śrotrāt tathā lokānakalpayan ||
saptāsyāsan paridhayastriḥ sapta samidhaḥ kṛtāḥ |
devāyad yajñaṃ tanvānā abadhnan puruṣaṃ paśum ||
yajñena yajñamayajanta devāstāni dharmāṇi prathamānyāsan |
te ha nākaṃ mahimānaḥ sacanta yatra pūrve sādhyāḥsanti devāḥ ||
Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith
1. A THOUSAND heads hath Puruṣa, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet.
On every side pervading earth he fills a space ten fingers wide.
2 This Puruṣa is all that yet hath been and all that is to be;
The Lord of Immortality which waxes greater still by food.
3 So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruṣa.
All creatures are one-fourth of him, three-fourths eternal life in heaven.
4 With three-fourths Puruṣa went up: one-fourth of him again was here.
Thence he strode out to every side over what cats not and what cats.
5 From him Virāj was born; again Puruṣa from Virāj was born.
As soon as he was born he spread eastward and westward o’er the earth.
6 When Gods prepared the sacrifice with Puruṣa as their offering,
Its oil was spring, the holy gift was autumn; summer was the wood.
7 They balmed as victim on the grass Puruṣa born in earliest time.
With him the Deities and all Sādhyas and Ṛṣis sacrificed.
8 From that great general sacrifice the dripping fat was gathered up.
He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame.
9 From that great general sacrifice Ṛcas and Sāma-hymns were born:
Therefrom were spells and charms produced; the Yajus had its birth from it.
10 From it were horses born, from it all cattle with two rows of teeth:
From it were generated kine, from it the goats and sheep were born.
11 When they divided Puruṣa how many portions did they make?
What do they call his mouth, his arms? What do they call his thighs and feet?
12 The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made.
His thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced.
13 The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth;
Indra and Agni from his mouth were born, and Vāyu from his breath.
14 Forth from his navel came mid-air the sky was fashioned from his head
Earth from his feet, and from his car the regions. Thus they formed the worlds.
15 Seven fencing-sticks had he, thrice seven layers of fuel were prepared,
When the Gods, offering sacrifice, bound, as their victim, Puruṣa.
16 Gods, sacrificing, sacrificed the victim these were the earliest holy ordinances.
The Mighty Ones attained the height of heaven, there where the Sādhyas, Gods of old, are dwelling.