Translated by Prof. A. A. Ramanathan
Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai
Om ! O Devas, may we hear with our ears what is auspicious;
May we see with our eyes what is auspicious, O ye worthy of worship !
May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas,
Praising them with our body and limbs steady !
May the glorious Indra bless us !
May the all-knowing Sun bless us !
May Garuda, the thunderbolt for evil, bless us !
May Brihaspati grant us well-being !
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
I-1. Now once Narada, a jewel among ascetics, taking his (usual) rounds over all the (three) worlds, sanctifying (all the more) new sacred places and holy places of pilgrimage by his observation, (himself) attaining purity of mind, (remaining) free from enmity, tranquil, self-controlled, getting despondent from every quarter (seeing peopleâ€™s misery), closely investigating into his own Self, seeing the holy place, the Naimisha (sacred) forest, noted for its joy of self-imposed religious observances and crowded with saintly personages, he alighted there (from his aerial journey), fascinating groups of men, animals, horse-faced demigods, gods, Kimnara demigods and nymphs with his songs on the exploits of Lord Vishnu, called Sthavara and Jangama, which specially induce devotion to the Lord, set in musical notes sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha and ni, which arouse dispassion (to worldly attachments) and which are averse to the ways of the world. On his approach, Saunaka and other great sages who had arrived there to participate in a sacrifice lasting twelve years, rich in Vedic lore, all wise (in sacerdotal functions), well addicted to stable penance and endowed with wisdom and dispassion, rose to greet him; and paying homage, seated him (in a place of honour), after offering him a befitting welcome.
Then, though they were (already) well instructed (in matters spiritual, yet for the benefit of the world) they (said to Narada): â€˜Revered Sir, son of the god Brahma, what is the means of liberation (from worldly bondage) ? Please tell us.â€™
I-2. Thus requested, that (sage) Narada said to them: â€˜A (twice-born) of good family, invested with the sacred thread and initiated into Vedic study, having undergone the forty sacred rites (beginning with consummation of marriage of his parents and ending with Aptoryama sacrifice), completing the course on all branches of learning as a disciplined celibate student for twelve years, doing personal service to the preceptor all along; the period of twenty-five years as a householder; (another) twenty-five years in the stage of a forest dweller (Vanaprastha), all (the three stages) in due order in the prescribed manner; having studied well the duties of four kinds of Brahmacharya, six kinds of householders, four kinds of Vanaprastha; having completed all the appropriate duties pertaining to them; equipped with the four disciplines (for the study of Brahmavidya); free from desire in thought, word and deed as well as in latent desires (vasanas) and solicitations (eshana), devoid of enmity and is peaceful and self-controlled; when such an ascetic, meditating on his Self without interruption in the highest stage of renunciation (as Paramahamsa), gives up the body, he becomes liberated (from rebirth), he becomes liberated. Thus (ends the first Upadesha of) the Upanishad.
II-1. Then all (sages) Saunaka and others, requested the venerable Narada: â€˜Revered Sir, expound to us the mode of renunciationâ€™. Observing them Narada said: â€˜It is but proper to know all about its nature from the mouth of the grandfather (the god Brahma)â€™. After the completion of the sacrifice he went, accompanied by them, to the world of the god Brahma (Satyaloka) and made obeisance in the prescribed manner to him (Paramesthin) and eulogised him. Bidden by him he seated himself along with them properly and said to the grandfather (of all): â€˜You are the preceptor, you are the Father, you are omniscient, knowing the secret of all lores. Hence be pleased to expound one secret (lore) of my choice. Barring you, who is competent to speak on the secret (lore) dear to me ? It is to wit the stages in the order of mendicant monks. Please tell usâ€™. Requested thus by Narada the god Brahma seeing them all on all sides, remained steady in deep meditation (Samadhi) for a short time. Coming to the conclusion that they were in search of a remedy against the ills of worldly life and turning to Narada the grandfather said: â€˜My son, I shall now clearly expound the secret which was formerly taught by the supreme Being (Viratpurusha) assuming the matchless form of the Purusha-sukta hymn and the secret doctrine of the Upanishads. May you listen to this due order (of asceticism), very secret, with all your attentionâ€™.
II.2. â€˜O Narada, one born in a good family, being uninitiated at first, getting initiated into Vedic lore (after being invested with sacred thread), obedient to his mother and father, approaches (after the preliminary instructions by his father) a good preceptor, who maintains the noble tradition, has faith (in the Vedic lore), is born of a good family, is well versed in the Vedas, has love for the Shastras, is virtuous and free from devious ways. Bowing to him and rendering personal service appropriate for the occasion, he shall inform him of his heartâ€™s desire (to study under him). Having undergone the course of study in all branches of learning for twelve years, doing personal service all the while, he shall marry an agreeable damsel worthy of his family with his (preceptorâ€™s) consent. After this residence in the preceptorâ€™s house he leads, with the approval of the teacher, the life appropriate to a householder for twenty-five years. Free from the evils of a bad Brahmana, getting a son with desire to perpetuate his family and completing twenty-five years befitting the stage of a householder, he shall lead the life of a lone forest-dweller (Vanaprastha) till (another) twenty five years are passed; bathing thrice a day after touching with water the various parts of the body, eating one meal a day at the fourth watch (of day time, i.e., in the afternoon), giving up journey to town and village as practised in former days, performing appropriate rituals without using cultivated grains (such as wheat and rice, but using wild grains alone), free from desire for enjoyments that are seen or heard of (i.e. pleasures in this world and the next), being purified by the forty sacraments, free of attachments to all things, getting purity of mind, having burnt away envy, jealousy and egotism and being rich in the fourfold discipline â€“ such a person deserves to embrace (the life of) renunciationâ€™. Thus (ends the second Upadesha of) the Upanishad.
III-1. Then Narada asked the grandfather (Brahma): â€˜Lord, what is renunciation (Sannyasa) and who is entitled to renounce worldly life ?â€™ â€˜I shall first deal with the (kind of) person entitled to renunciation and thereafter the mode of renunciation. Listen attentively:
â€˜These (the following persons) do not deserve to renounce worldly life. A eunuch, one fallen (from right conduct), deformed person, women, the deaf, a child, the dumb, the heretic, an emperor, a religious student, a Vaikhanasa anchorite and a Haradvija (Kapalika?), a hired teacher, a man without prepuce and one who does not maintain the sacred fire, even though all these are possessed of dispassion. Even if they adopt (the life of) renunciation they have no right to receive (instruction in) the great Vedic texts (â€™Thou art Thatâ€™ etc.,). One who is already an ascetic has the right to become the highest kind of ascetic (Paramahamsa).
III-2. â€˜He who brings about protection from fear to others from him, as he gets himself (that protection from fear) from others, is declared in law books as a mendicant monk.
III-3-4. â€˜A eunuch, deformed person, the blind, a boy, one guilty of crime, one fallen from right conduct, one (always) at the gate of another (seeking help), the Vaikhanasa anchorite and the Haradvija, an emperor, a religious student, a heretic, one without prepuce, one who does not maintain the sacred fire, one who has twice or thrice renounced worldly life (previously), and a hired teacher â€“ these persons do not deserve to embrace renunciation, excepting the afflicted in emergency (just before death).â€™
III-5. How is (renunciation at) the time of dire affliction approved by the esteemed (Aryas) ?
â€˜The time just prior to the departure of the vital breath from the body is called the sorely afflicted (time) and not any other; this occasion of emergency leads to the path of liberation (by recourse to renunciation with the prescribed praisamantras).
III-6. Even in renunciation by the sorely afflicted (atura-sannyasa), a wise man shall renounce the world only in the prescribed manner by uttering the mantras laid down for it and having repeated the mantras.
III-7. Even in the kind (of renunciation adopted) by the greatly afflicted, there is nowhere any difference in the Praisa (mantras). There is no mantra (uttered) without a religious activity; (and) a religious activity has an eye on a mantra.
III-8. (An act) without a mantra is no religious act (i.e. it is different); hence one shall not give up the mantra. A religious act done without mantra is like oblation offered in ashes.
III-9. Renunciation by the sorely afflicted is declared to be by abridging the ritual prescribed therefor; hence in atura-sannyasa, there is the mode of repeating mantras (without ritual), O sageâ€™.
III-10. If an ahitagni-householder gets disillusioned with the world while away in another province, he shall complete the Prapatya sacrifice in (a reservoir of) waters and then renounce worldly life.
III-11. A wise man shall renounce the world after completing (the prerequisite recital of Praisa mantras) either mentally, or by repeating the mantras in the prescribed manner (during the Prajapatya sacrifice) or (offer oblation) in waters or by performing rituals in the manner prescribed in the Veda; otherwise he will be heading to a fall (degradation).
III-12. When desirelessness arises in the mind towards all objects, then (authorities) sanction renunciation (by such person); contrariwise he shall fall (from virtue).
III-13. A wise man, when disillusioned with the world, may become a mendicant monk; when a person has attachments he shall reside in his house. That degraded Brahmana who turns ascetic when he has attachments indeed goes to hell.
III-14. That Brahmana, in the stage of a disciplined celibate student, may take to renunciation, without getting married whose tongue, genitals, stomach and hands are well guarded (i.e. they are under perfect control).
III-15. Seeing worldly life as completely devoid of substance and with a desire to realize the essence (of all), they renounce the world without getting married, being imbued with great dispassion.
III-16. (All non-spiritual) activity is characterised by the play of an active part in worldly affairs; true knowledge is the characteristic of renunciation. Hence placing in front (i.e. preferring) wisdom, an intelligent man will renounce the world.
III-17. When a person realizes that the supreme reality is the eternal Brahman (alone) he shall, taking up the single emblematic staff, give up the tuft of hair along with the sacred thread.
III-18. He who is attached to the supreme Self (Paramatman), is detached from things other than that (Paramatman); freed from all desires it behoves on his part to eat food given as alms.
III-19. When a person, who becomes very pleased when he is honoured and respectfully saluted, becomes similarly (very pleased) when he is being beaten, then he is a (true) mendicant monk (subsisting on alms).
III-20. â€˜I am the indestructible non-dual Brahman alone, called Vasudeva (Lord Vishnu)â€™ â€“ he whose firm attitude is thus (established) becomes a (true) mendicant monk.
III-21. He is in the stage (leading to) final beatitude in whom are found peace, quiescence, purity, truth, contentment, straightforwardness, absence of any possession and false airs.
III-22. When a person has no evil propensity towards all beings in deed, thought and speech he becomes a (true) mendicant monk.
III-23. Attentively discharging his duties characterised by the ten (virtues) and studying in the prescribed manner the Upanishads (Vedanta), a twice-born (dvija), having discharged the three debts, may renounce worldly life.
III-24. The ten virtues characterising right conduct (dharma) are: Contentment, forgiveness, self-control, non-stealing, purity, control of the senses, humility, (scriptural) learning, truth, and an even temper.
III-25. He abides in the stage (leading to) final emancipation who remembers not (with longing) past pleasures, as also those not yet experienced; nor does he exult in those that have arrived.
III-26. He who is always able to keep the inward faculties of senses within and the outward objects of sense outside (without any reaction) resides in the stage (leading to) final beatitude.
III-27. Just as, when the vital breath has departed, the body no longer experiences pleasure and pain, he (the sage) is such even when he is alive (lit. when he is united with the vital breath); then he stays in the stage (leading to) final emancipation (Kaivalya).
III-28. A pair of loin cloth, a patched garment (against the cold of winter), and a single emblematic staff constitute the accoutrements of the highest class of ascetics (Paramahamsa); no more is allowed by (scriptural) law;
III-29. If he were to possess more accoutrements for comfort he will go to the dreadful hell (Raurava) and be (renunciation-)born in the species of animals.
III-30. He may wear outwardly a patched garment strung out of pieces of discarded but clean cloth after dyeing it with ochre.
III-31. Wearing a single garment or unclad, his vision on one alone (i.e. liberation) and without longing (for pleasures) (the Paramahamsa) shall always be on the move alone; in the rainy season (alone) he may stay in one place.
III-32. Giving up his house-hold (kinsmen), children and wife, all branches of the Veda, sacrificial rites and the sacred thread, the ascetic shall journey alone (without attracting attention to him).
III-33. Abandoning faults such as passion; anger, pride, greed and delusion the mendicant monk shall remain free from â€˜mine-nessâ€™ (nirmamah).
III-34. Ridding himself of love and hatred, (viewing) equally on clod, stone and gold and desisting from injuring (all) beings, the ascetic shall remain free from all desires.
III-35. An ascetic will attain liberation when he is freed of pride and egotism, devoid of hurting and wickedness, and possessed of the virtues of self-knowledge.
III-36. By attachment to (the pleasures of) the senses one undoubtedly comes to harm; restraining them alone well one attains final beatitude.
III-37-38. Desires do not subside by giving scope for their enjoyment; like fire fed by oblation, they only increase all the more. That person is to be known as one who has conquered his senses, who neither rejoices in nor dislikes (the objects) having heard, touched, eaten, seen or smelt them.
III-39. He reaps all the fruits promised by the Vedanta (Upanishads) whose speech and mind are ever pure and always well guarded.
III-40. A Brahmana (in quest of liberation) should always recoil from honours as from poison; he should always welcome disregard as (he would) nectar.
III-41. A person illused (forgetting it) sleeps soundly, wakes up in good humour and goes about (his work) in the world happily; (but) the insulter comes to grief.
III-42. One should bear patiently with abusive language and never insult another; nor should he in this embodied state, create enmity with anyone.
III-43. One shall not return anger for anger; when abused he shall speak gently for the welfare (of all); one should never speak an untrue word which feeds (worldly desires of) the seven gates (of the body).
III-44. Taking delight in the supreme light (manifested in the individual Self), remaining quiescent, free from desires and blessings, seeking (supreme) bliss, he (the ascetic) should move about (as a mendicant monk) with the Self alone as his companion.
III-45-47. He becomes fit for immortality by subduing the senses, enervating (feelings of) love and hatred and by non-injury to living beings. (This body) pillared by bones, bound together by tendons, plastered with flesh and blood, covered by skin, foul smelling, filled with urine and faeces, subject to old age and affliction, an abode of diseases, liable to injury, full of passion, impermanent and the abode of the elements (i.e. the body) one may abandon (without regret).
III-48. If one were to take delight in the body which is a conglomerate of flesh, blood, pus, faeces, urine, tendons, marrow and bones, that fool will be (delighted) in hell as well.
III-49. The attitude â€˜I am the bodyâ€™ is (the same as) the path leading to the hell (called) Kalasutra, the trap for Mahavichi hell and a series of forest(-hells) where the trees have leaves as sharp as swords.
III-50. Even if total ruin faces one, this (identifying the body with the Self) should be abandoned by every effort; it should not be touched (accepted) by a nobly-born person just as a (low born) tribal woman carrying dogâ€™s meat.
III-51. Abandoning (both) virtuous acts towards oneâ€™s dear ones and evil deeds towards unfriendly people, (a person) attains the eternal Brahman by the practice of deep meditation (Dhyana-yoga).
III-52. By this method, abandoning all attachments gradually, and freed from (the influence of) all the pairs (of opposites, such as pleasure and pain) one gets established in Brahman alone.
III-53. (The ascetic) shall journey alone without any helper for attaining final beatitude; for, seeing the perfection of the one (Brahman) he neither abandons it nor is he abandoned (by it).
III-54. A skull (for an alms bowl), (shelter under) the shade of trees, ragged garments, solitude and equanimity in all (things) – such is the characteristic of the liberated.
III-55. Benign to all beings, calm, wearing three-fold (emblematic) staff, (carrying) a water-pot, delighting in the one (Brahman) â€“ having become a mendicant monk (thus) he may enter a village for alms.
III-56. The mendicant monk shall be alone as stated before; two together are declared to be a pair (having attachment to each other); three together are said to constitute a village (with their bickerings); more than these (three) become a city (of bustle and confusion).
III-57. The city (of ascetics) should not be created, nor the village nor the pair; an ascetic doing (forming part of) these three falls off his rightful duty.
III-58. Due to their close association there will doubtless be talks on royal personages, etc., mutual luck in alms, and (also) affection, tale-bearing and rivalry among them.
III-59. He shall remain alone and without desires; he shall not converse with any one. He shall utter â€˜Narayanaâ€™ alone as the reply always (to otherâ€™s statements).
III-60. In solitude he shall contemplate on Brahman (whole heartedly) in thought, word and deed. He shall not by any means either welcome death or (rejoice in) life.
III-61. He shall only mark time (when practising asceticism) till the allotted span of life is completed; he shall neither welcome death nor rejoice in living. He shall await the time (of death) alone as an employee awaits orders.
III-62. A mendicant monk gets liberation when he possesses the following six characteristics: he is tongueless (in relishing food and speech), a eunuch (in sex), lame (in push), blind (in seeing sense objects), deaf (in hearing praise or curse) and innocent (like a child). There is no doubt about it.
III-63. That ascetic is said to be tongueless who, while eating food is not conscious of its being savoury or otherwise and who speaks words beneficial and truthful in moderation.
III-64. He is a eunuch who is unaffected on seeing a female whether newly born, sixteen year old or one of a hundred years.
III-65. When an ascetic goes about (only) for alms and answering calls of nature and does not exceed (a distance of) thirteen or fourteen kilometres (in a day) he is by all means a lame person.
III-66. That mendicant monk is said to be blind whose eyes, (being modestly lowered) while standing still or walking, do not see far excepting sixteen cubits of ground (before him).
III-67. Hearing words beneficial or otherwise, pleasing to the mind or causing grief, he seems not to hear them (i.e. remains equanimous); such a sage is said to be deaf.
III-68. That mendicant monk is said to be childlike who always remains as if asleep in the presence of objects of sensory pleasures, (though) his senses are efficient and unimpaired.
III-69. Show by dancers, etc., gambling, lady friend (of former days), eatables (heaped temptingly), (other) enjoyable things and a woman in her courses â€“ these an ascetic shall always avoid.
III-70. An ascetic shall never even think of in his mind these six â€“ love, hatred, intoxication, bamboozling, hurting and deluding others.
III-71. A bedstead, white clothes, talk on women, unsteadiness, daytime sleep and a carriage â€“ these six cause the fall of ascetics.
III-72. One who thinks on the Self shall painstakingly avoid long journeys. The ascetic shall always be practising the lore of the Upanishads which is the means for liberation.
III-73. The ascetic shall not always be resorting to a place of pilgrimage nor be undergoing fasts frequently; he shall not be studying the scripture all the time nor be expounding them exclusively.
III-74. He shall always conduct himself without (committing) sin, deceit and devious acts, restraining his senses in every way as a tortoise does its limbs.
III-75-76. He will be released (from worldly bondage) when the functioning of his senses and the mind has become quiescent; is free of hopes (of gain) and possessions; is indifferent to the pairs (of opposites, pleasure and pain, etc.,), reverential salutation and the exercise of his will (nihsvadhakara); is free from â€˜mine-nessâ€™, egotism, expectations and blessings; and sticks to solitude. There is no doubt about it. Thus (are the duties of ascetics).
III-77. A disciplined celibate student, a householder or a forest-dweller (Vanaprastha) may renounce worldly life when he is ever vigilant in leading a righteous life, possesses (proficiency in) action, has devotion and wisdom, and comes to possess dispassion of his own accord. If he is chiefly interested (in the particular stage of his life) he shall complete the stage of studentship and become a householder; from (the stage of a householder) becoming a forest-dweller, he shall (thereafter) renounce the world. Or otherwise he may renounce worldly life from the stage of a student or householder or forest dweller. But then a person may renounce, that very day on which he gets disillusioned with the world, whether he is one who observes not vows (before the stage of renunciation) or observes them, whether he has undergone the prescribed ablution on completing the disciplined studentship or not, whether he is one who has discontinued maintaining the ritual fire at the death of his wife (utsannagni) or is one who does not maintain (for other causes) the ritual fire (anagnika). Some (law-givers) prescribe the sacrifice called Prajapatya (of which god Brahma is the presiding deity, to a twice-born before he embraces renunciation). But (though thus said) he may not do so. He shall only perform the Agneyi sacrifice (whose presiding deity is Agni, the god of fire). For Agni is the vital breath (Prana). Thereby he does (strengthen) the vital breath. (Then) he shall perform the Traidhataviya sacrifice (whose presiding deity is the god Indra). By this (sacrifice) the three vital fluids (become strong like fire), namely the Sattva (semen), rajas (blood) and Tamas (the dark one).
III-78. (Having performed the sacrifice in the prescribed manner he shall smell the holy fire, reciting the following mantra): â€˜Oh Fire, this (vital breath) is your source; as you are born at the proper time (of the year) you put on effulgence. Knowing him (the Atman, your ultimate source) may you merge (with the Prana, your source). May you increase our wealth (of transcendent knowledge)â€™. Thus reciting the mantra he shall smell the fire. This is the source of fire, this vital air. May you go unto Prana, may you go unto your source. Svaha. Thus alone this (mantra) says. Having secured the ritual fire from the Ahavaniya (sacred fire) he shall smell it as before. If he is unable to procure the ritual fire he shall offer the oblation in the waters. For water is (presided over by) all the gods. Reciting (the mantra) â€˜I offer the oblation to all the gods, Svaha, he shall tender the oblation, and picking up (a small portion left over of) the offered oblation which is mixed with ghee, he shall eat it (mixed) with water. The oblation mixed with ghee is beneficial and gives (leads to) liberation. Thus (it has been declared). Only after discarding the tuft of hair, sacred thread, parents, son, wife, (normal) work, study, mantras (other than those prescribed for ascetics), a wise man (knower of spiritual knowledge) renounces worldly life. By the mantras of liberation pertaining to the Traidhataviya sacrifice he shall attain (final beatitude). That is Brahman; that should reverently be resorted to. Thus alone is this (liberation attained). Thus.
III-79. Narada again asked of the grandfather (Brahma): â€˜How is he, (being now) without the sacred thread, a Brahmana ?â€™ The god Brahma said to him (as follows).
III-80. Taking a shave with the (removal of the) tuft, a wise man shall discard the external (sacred) thread. He shall wear as the thread (i.e. he shall always be conscious of) the transcendent Brahman which is indestructible.
III-81. The sutra is so called as it indicates (Brahman). The sutra is indeed the supreme state. That Brahmana (alone) has completely mastered the Vedas who has realized that sutra.
III-82. The Yogin, the knower of yoga and the perceiver of the truth, shall possess that sutra (Brahman) by which everything is held together (sustained), as a group of gems by a thread.
III-83. Established in the highest yoga a wise man shall abandon the external (Sacred) thread. He is wise who possesses the sutra, the state of Brahman. Possessing that sutra he becomes neither unholy or impure.
III-84. Those who have the sutra inwardly and possess the sacred thread of wisdom, are indeed the knowers of the sutra; they wear the (true) sacred thread.
III-85. Those who wear a tuft of hair in the form of wisdom (Jnana), whose fundamental condition is wisdom, who possess the sacred thread of wisdom, to whom wisdom alone is supreme, have, it is said, pure knowledge.
III-86. That wise man whose tuft consists of wisdom, like the flame in the case of fire, and no other, is said to be the possessor of sikha (tuft; pre-eminence); not others who (merely) bear a lock of hair on the crown of the head.
III-87. The Brahmana and such others who are engaged in Vedic rites are to wear this (sacred) thread; for it is declared to be part of the ceremony.
III-88. He whose tuft consists of wisdom as also his sacred thread (of that wisdom), has all the requisites of a Brahmana; so understand the knowers of the Veda. Thus.
III-89. Knowing thus (the duties of ascetics), a Brahmana, having renounced worldly life, becomes a mendicant monk, wearing a single garment and shaven-headed, he receives no gifts (other than simple food for bare sustenance), if he is unable to bear bodily privation (of an unclad, unsoliciting Avadhuta ascetic). Or, according to prescribed rules, becoming unclad (lit. possessing a form as when newly born), renouncing his children, friends, wife, close kinsmen, etc., his Vedic study and rituals, abandoning the entire world, his loin cloth, emblematic staff and (warm) garment; being capable of putting up with the pairs (of opposites, pleasure and pain, etc.) and unmindful of cold and heat, pleasure and pain, sleep, honour and dishonour, and the six human infirmities (hunger, etc.); leaving off censuring, egotism, rivalry, pride, false airs, jealousy, envy, desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, love, anger, covetousness, delusion, etc.; remembering his body as a corpse; not conscious of anything other than the Self both inwardly and outwardly; not bowing to anyone, having neither the utterance of Svaha (in worshipping the gods) nor the utterance of Svadha (in honour of the manes); indulging neither in praise nor blame; he thus becomes independent of extraneous influences.
Contented with (food alone) that comes unsolicited, he shall not accept (gifts of) gold, etc. He does neither the invocation of deities nor utter mantras to send them back; he has not mantra or non-mantra, meditation or worship, aim or non-aim, separation or union; and being of firm mind (in regard to residence) has no home (to sleep in at night) other than a deserted house, the shade of a tree, a temple, a clump of (tall) grass, a potterâ€™s shed, a hut where ritual fire is kept, the Southeast quarter, the sandy bank of a river, a cellar, cave or grounds near water falls or in a forest. He may have no distinctive emblem of an ascetic (like the great sages of yore) such as Svetaketu, Ribhu, Nidagha, Rishabha, Durvasas, Samvartaka, Dattatreya and Raivataka. His conduct is incomprehensible (to ordinary people) like the conduct of children, mad men and ghosts. Though (perfectly) sane he behaves like an insane person. Muttering Svaha he shall discard all these in the waters â€“ the threefold (emblematic) staff, sling (to carry his effects), (alms) bowl, (water) vessel, waist band and loin-cloth.
III-90. He shall journey (as a mendicant monk) unclad, leaving in the waters all these â€“ the waistband, loin-cloth, the (emblematic) staff, garment and water vessel.
III-91. He shall seek the (realization of the) Self. Remaining unclad, free from (the influence of) the pairs (of opposites), receiving no gifts, well established in the path of the reality of Brahman, with his mind pure, eating food to sustain life at the prescribed hour with his hand or otherwise (placed in the mouth) without begging, equanimous in gain or denial (of food), without â€˜mine-nessâ€™, deeply interested in meditating on the pure effulgence (i.e. Brahman), devoted to the supreme spirit (manifested as the individual Self), deeply engaged in rooting out the effect of good and bad actions, he shall renounce (all other than the Self); having only one thought, namely of supreme bliss, ever recollecting Brahman in the form of Pranava (Om) and that he is Brahman alone, he shall give up the threefold body according to the maxim of the wasp (to become one with Brahman) and abandon the body by renunciation alone. He becomes one who has fulfilled himself (i.e. he attains liberation in the disembodied state). Thus (ends the third Upadesha of) the Upanishad.