पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे |
साङ् ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् ||
pañchaitāni mahā-bāho kāraṇāni nibodha me
sānkhye kṛitānte proktāni siddhaye sarva-karmaṇām
हे महाबाहो! सम्पूर्ण कर्मों की सिद्धि के ये पाँच हेतु कर्मों का अंत करने के लिए उपाय बतलाने वाले सांख्य-शास्त्र में कहे गए हैं, उनको तू मुझसे भलीभाँति जान॥13॥
O Arjun, now learn from me about the five factors that have been mentioned for the accomplishment of all actions in the doctrine of Sānkhya, which explains how to stop the reactions of karmas.
English Translation Of Sri Shankaracharya’s Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Gambirananda
18.13 O mighty-armed one, nibodha, learn; me, from Me; imani, these; panca, five; karanani, factors, accessories, which are going to be stated-for drawing the attention of his (Arjuna’s) mind and for showing the difference among these categories [Categories: locus (body) etc], the Lord praises those accessories in the succeeding verses as fit for being known-; siddhaye, for the accomplishment; sarva-karmanam, of all actions; proktani, which have been spoken of; sankhye, in Vedanta-sankhya is that scripture where the subject-matters [In the sentence, ‘Thou art That’, the word Thou means the individual Self, and That means Brahman. The comprehension of their unity, and also ‘hearing, reflection and meditation’ are referred to as the subject-matters.] to be known are fully (samyak) stated (khyayante)-; krtante, in which actions terminate. Krtante alifies that very word (Vedanta).
Krtam mean action. That in which occurs the culmination (anta) of that krtam is krtantam, i.e. the termination of actions. In the texts, ‘৷৷.as much utility as a man has in a well’ (2.46), and ‘O son of Prtha, all actions in their totality culminate in Knowledge’ (4.33), the Lord shows the cessation of all actions when the knowledge of the Self dawns. Hence (it is said): ‘৷৷.which have been spoken of in that Vedanta where actions culminate and which is meant for the knowledge of the Self.’
Which are they? This is being answered: