Chapter 8 – The Bhagawad Gita

ॐ तत्सदिति श्री मद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्री कृष्णार्जुनसंवादे अक्षर ब्रह्मयोगो नामाष्टमोऽध्यायः ॥8॥

( ब्रह्म, अध्यात्म और कर्मादि के विषय में अर्जुन के सात प्रश्न और उनका उत्तर )

Chapter 8 – The Bhagawad Gita

 

Chapter 8,  Verse 1

अर्जुन उवाच-किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं पुरुषोत्तम ।अधिभूतं च किं प्रोक्तमधिदैवं किमुच्यते ॥ 
Arjun said: O Supreme Lord, what is Brahman (Absolute Reality), what is adhyātma (the individual soul), and what is karma? What is said to be adhibhūta, and who is said to be Adhidaiva?’
अधियज्ञः कथं कोऽत्र देहेऽस्मिन्मधुसूदन ।प्रयाणकाले च कथं ज्ञेयोऽसि नियतात्मभिः ॥  
 Who is Adhiyajña in the body and how is He the Adhiyajña? O Krishna, how are You to be known at the time of death by those of steadfast mind?
श्रीभगवानुवाच-अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमं स्वभावोऽध्यात्ममुच्यते । भूतभावोद्भवकरो विसर्गः कर्मसंज्ञितः ॥ 
The Blessed Lord said: The Supreme Indestructible Entity is called Brahman; one’s own self is called adhyātma. Actions pertaining to the material personality of living beings, and its development are called karma, or fruitive activities.
अधिभूतं क्षरो भावः पुरुषश्चाधिदैवतम्‌ ।अधियज्ञोऽहमेवात्र देहे देहभृतां वर ॥ 
O best of the embodied souls, the physical manifestation that is constantly changing is called adhibhūta; the universal form of God, which presides over the celestial gods in this creation, is called adhidaiva; I, who dwell in the heart of every living being, am called Adhiyajña, or the Lord of all sacrifices.
अंतकाले च मामेव स्मरन्मुक्त्वा कलेवरम्‌ । यः प्रयाति स मद्भावं याति नास्त्यत्र संशयः ॥
Those who relinquish the body while remembering Me at the moment of death will come to Me. There is certainly no doubt about this.
यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम्‌ । तं तमेवैति कौन्तेय सदा तद्भावभावितः ॥ 

Whatever one remembers upon giving up the body at the time of death, O son of Kunti, one attains that state, being always absorbed in such contemplation.

Chapter 8,  Verse 7

तस्मात्सर्वेषु कालेषु मामनुस्मर युद्ध च । मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्मामेवैष्यस्यसंशयम्‌ ॥
 Therefore, always remember Me and also do your duty of fighting the war. With mind and intellect surrendered to Me, you will definitely attain Me; of this, there is no doubt.
( भक्ति योग का विषय ) अभ्यासयोगयुक्तेन चेतसा नान्यगामिना । परमं पुरुषं दिव्यं याति पार्थानुचिन्तयन्‌ ॥ 
With practice, O Parth, when you constantly engage the mind in remembering Me, the Supreme Divine Personality, without deviating, you will certainly attain Me.
कविं पुराणमनुशासितार-मणोरणीयांसमनुस्मरेद्यः । सर्वस्य धातारमचिन्त्यरूप-मादित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात्‌ ॥  9
God is Omniscient, the most ancient one, the Controller, subtler than the subtlest, the Support of all, and the possessor of an inconceivable divine form; He is brighter than the sun, and beyond all darkness of ignorance.
प्रयाण काले मनसाचलेन भक्त्या युक्तो योगबलेन चैव । भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्‌- स तं परं पुरुषमुपैति दिव्यम्‌ । 
 One who at the time of death, with unmoving mind attained by the practice of Yog, fixes the prāṇ (life airs) between the eyebrows, and steadily remembers the Divine Lord with great devotion, certainly attains Him.
यदक्षरं वेदविदो वदन्ति विशन्ति यद्यतयो वीतरागाः । यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति तत्ते पदं संग्रहेण प्रवक्ष्ये ॥ 

 Scholars of the Vedas describe Him as Imperishable; great ascetics practice the vow of celibacy and renounce worldly pleasures to enter into Him. I shall now explain to you briefly the path to that goal.

Chapter 8,  Verse 12

सर्वद्वाराणि संयम्य मनो हृदि निरुध्य च । मूर्ध्न्याधायात्मनः प्राणमास्थितो योगधारणाम्‌ ॥
 Restraining all the gates of the body and fixing the mind in the heart region, and then drawing the life-breath to the head, one should get established in steadfast yogic concentration.
ओमित्येकाक्षरं ब्रह्म व्याहरन्मामनुस्मरन्‌ ।यः प्रयाति त्यजन्देहं स याति परमां गतिम्‌ ॥ 
One who departs from the body while remembering Me, the Supreme Personality, and chanting the syllable Om, will attain the supreme goal.
अनन्यचेताः सततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः ।तस्याहं सुलभः पार्थ नित्ययुक्तस्य योगिनीः ॥  
O Parth, for those yogis who always think of Me with exclusive devotion, I am easily attainable because of their constant absorption in Me.
मामुपेत्य पुनर्जन्म दुःखालयमशाश्वतम्‌ । नाप्नुवन्ति महात्मानः संसिद्धिं परमां गताः ॥ 
 Having attained Me, the great souls are no more subject to rebirth in this world, which is transient and full of misery, because they have attained the highest perfection.
आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्तिनोऽर्जुन ।मामुपेत्य तु कौन्तेय पुनर्जन्म न विद्यते ॥  
In all the worlds of this material creation, up to the highest abode of Brahma, you will be subject to rebirth, O Arjun. But on attaining My Abode, O son of Kunti, there is no further rebirth.
सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तमहर्यद्ब्रह्मणो विदुः । रात्रिं युगसहस्रान्तां तेऽहोरात्रविदो जनाः ॥ 
One day of Brahma (kalp) lasts a thousand cycles of the four ages (mahā yug) and his night also extends for the same span of time. The wise who know this understand the reality about day and night.
अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयः सर्वाः प्रभवन्त्यहरागमे । रात्र्यागमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्तसंज्ञके ॥  
At the advent of Brahma’s day, all living beings emanate from the unmanifest source. And at the fall of his night, all embodied beings again merge into their unmanifest source.
भूतग्रामः स एवायं भूत्वा भूत्वा प्रलीयते । रात्र्यागमेऽवशः पार्थ प्रभवत्यहरागमे ॥ 
The multitudes of beings repeatedly take birth with the advent of Brahma’s day, and are reabsorbed on the arrival of the cosmic night, to manifest again automatically on the advent of the next cosmic day.
परस्तस्मात्तु भावोऽन्योऽव्यक्तोऽव्यक्तात्सनातनः । यः स सर्वेषु भूतेषु नश्यत्सु न विनश्यति ॥ 
Transcendental to this manifest and unmanifest creation, there is yet another unmanifest eternal dimension. That realm does not cease even when all others do.
अव्यक्तोऽक्षर इत्युक्तस्तमाहुः परमां गतिम्‌ ।यं प्राप्य न निवर्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम ॥  
That unmanifest dimension is the supreme goal, and upon reaching it, one never returns to this mortal world. That is My supreme Abode.
पुरुषः स परः पार्थ भक्त्या लभ्यस्त्वनन्यया ।यस्यान्तः स्थानि भूतानि येन सर्वमिदं ततम्‌ ॥  
The Supreme Divine Personality is greater than all that exists. Although He is all-pervading and all living beings are situated in Him, yet He can be known only through devotion.
( शुक्ल और कृष्ण मार्ग का विषय ) यत्र काले त्वनावत्तिमावृत्तिं चैव योगिनः । प्रयाता यान्ति तं कालं वक्ष्यामि भरतर्षभ ॥ 
I shall now describe to you the different paths of passing away from this world, O best of the Bharatas, one of which leads to liberation and the other leads to rebirth.
अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम्‌ ।तत्र प्रयाता गच्छन्ति ब्रह्म ब्रह्मविदो जनाः ॥  
Those who know the Supreme Brahman, and who depart from this world, during the six months of the sun’s northern course, the bright fortnight of the moon, and the bright part of the day, attain the supreme destination
धूमो रात्रिस्तथा कृष्ण षण्मासा दक्षिणायनम्‌ ।तत्र चान्द्रमसं ज्योतिर्योगी प्राप्य निवर्तते ॥  
 The practitioners of Vedic rituals, who pass away during the six months of the sun’s southern course, the dark fortnight of the moon, the time of smoke, the night, attain the celestial abodes
शुक्ल कृष्णे गती ह्येते जगतः शाश्वते मते । एकया यात्यनावृत्ति मन्ययावर्तते पुनः ॥  
After enjoying celestial pleasures, they again return to the earth. These two, bright and dark paths, always exist in this world. The way of light leads to liberation and the way of darkness leads to rebirth.
नैते सृती पार्थ जानन्योगी मुह्यति कश्चन ।तस्मात्सर्वेषु कालेषु योगयुक्तो भवार्जुन ॥
Yogis who know the secret of these two paths, O Parth, are never bewildered. Therefore, at all times be situated in Yog (union with God).
वेदेषु यज्ञेषु तपःसु चैव दानेषु यत्पुण्यफलं प्रदिष्टम्‌ ।अत्येत तत्सर्वमिदं विदित्वा योगी परं स्थानमुपैति चाद्यम्‌ ॥ 
The yogis, who know this secret, gain merit far beyond the fruits of Vedic rituals, the study of the Vedas, performance of sacrifices, austerities, and charities. Such yogis reach the Supreme Abode.

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