Bhagwad-Gita

(ज्ञानसहित प्रकृति-पुरुष का विषय)

ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायांयोगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञविभागयोगो नाम त्रयोदशोऽध्यायः॥13॥

Chapter 13 – The Bhagawad Gita

(ज्ञानसहित क्षेत्र-क्षेत्रज्ञ का विषय)

Chapter 13,  Verse 2

श्रीभगवानुवाच-इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः॥ 

The Supreme Divine Lord said: O Arjun, this body is termed as kṣhetra (the field of activities), and the one who knows this body is called kṣhetrajña (the knower of the field) by the sages who discern the truth about both.


Chapter 13,  Verse 3

क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत।क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम॥ 

 O scion of Bharat, I am also the knower of all the individual fields of activity. The understanding of the body as the field of activities, and the soul and God as the knowers of the field, this I hold to be true knowledge.


Chapter 13,  Verse 4

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत्‌।स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे श्रृणु॥  

Listen and I will explain to you what that field is and what its nature is. I will also explain how change takes place within it, from what it was created, who the knower of the field of activities is, and what his powers are.


Chapter 13,  Verse 5

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक्‌ ।ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥ 

Great sages have sung the truth about the field and the knower of the field in manifold ways. It has been stated in various Vedic hymns, and especially revealed in the Brahma Sūtra, with sound logic and conclusive evidence.


Chapter 13,  Verse 6

महाभूतान्यहङ्‍कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च ।इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥  

The field of activities is composed of the five great elements, the ego, the intellect, the unmanifest primordial matter, the eleven senses (five knowledge senses, five working senses, and mind), and the five objects of the senses.


Chapter 13,  Verse 7

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं सङ्‍घातश्चेतना धृतिः ।एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम्‌ ॥  

Desire and aversion, happiness and misery, the body, consciousness, and the will—all these comprise the field and its modifications.


Chapter 13,  Verse 8

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम्‌ ।आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥  

Humbleness; freedom from hypocrisy; non-violence; forgiveness; simplicity; service of the Guru; cleanliness of body and mind; steadfastness; and self-control; dispassion toward the objects of the senses; absence of egotism; keeping in mind the evils of birth, disease, old age, and death; non-attachment; absence of clinging to spouse, children, home, and so on; even-mindedness amidst desired and undesired events in life; constant and exclusive devotion toward Me; an inclination for solitary places and an aversion for mundane society; constancy in spiritual knowledge; and philosophical pursuit of the Absolute Truth—all these I declare to be knowledge, and what is contrary to it, I call ignorance.


Chapter 13,  Verse 9

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहङ्‍कार एव च । जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम्‌ ॥ 

Humbleness; freedom from hypocrisy; non-violence; forgiveness; simplicity; service of the Guru; cleanliness of body and mind; steadfastness; and self-control; dispassion toward the objects of the senses; absence of egotism; keeping in mind the evils of birth, disease, old age, and death; non-attachment; absence of clinging to spouse, children, home, and so on; even-mindedness amidst desired and undesired events in life; constant and exclusive devotion toward Me; an inclination for solitary places and an aversion for mundane society; constancy in spiritual knowledge; and philosophical pursuit of the Absolute Truth—all these I declare to be knowledge, and what is contrary to it, I call ignorance.


Chapter 13,  Verse 10

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्‍ग: पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥  

Humbleness; freedom from hypocrisy; non-violence; forgiveness; simplicity; service of the Guru; cleanliness of body and mind; steadfastness; and self-control; dispassion toward the objects of the senses; absence of egotism; keeping in mind the evils of birth, disease, old age, and death; non-attachment; absence of clinging to spouse, children, home, and so on; even-mindedness amidst desired and undesired events in life; constant and exclusive devotion toward Me; an inclination for solitary places and an aversion for mundane society; constancy in spiritual knowledge; and philosophical pursuit of the Absolute Truth—all these I declare to be knowledge, and what is contrary to it, I call ignorance.


Chapter 13,  Verse 11

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥ 

Humbleness; freedom from hypocrisy; non-violence; forgiveness; simplicity; service of the Guru; cleanliness of body and mind; steadfastness; and self-control; dispassion toward the objects of the senses; absence of egotism; keeping in mind the evils of birth, disease, old age, and death; non-attachment; absence of clinging to spouse, children, home, and so on; even-mindedness amidst desired and undesired events in life; constant and exclusive devotion toward Me; an inclination for solitary places and an aversion for mundane society; constancy in spiritual knowledge; and philosophical pursuit of the Absolute Truth—all these I declare to be knowledge, and what is contrary to it, I call ignorance.


Chapter 13,  Verse 12

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम्‌ । एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥ 

 Humbleness; freedom from hypocrisy; non-violence; forgiveness; simplicity; service of the Guru; cleanliness of body and mind; steadfastness; and self-control; dispassion toward the objects of the senses; absence of egotism; keeping in mind the evils of birth, disease, old age, and death; non-attachment; absence of clinging to spouse, children, home, and so on; even-mindedness amidst desired and undesired events in life; constant and exclusive devotion toward Me; an inclination for solitary places and an aversion for mundane society; constancy in spiritual knowledge; and philosophical pursuit of the Absolute Truth—all these I declare to be knowledge, and what is contrary to it, I call ignorance.


Chapter 13,  Verse 13

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्वप्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते । अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥ 

I shall now reveal to you that which ought to be known, and by knowing which, one attains immortality. It is the beginningless Brahman, which lies beyond existence and non-existence.


Chapter 13,  Verse 14

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्‌ । सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥ 

 Everywhere are His hands and feet, eyes, heads, and faces. His ears too are in all places, for He pervades everything in the universe.


Chapter 13,  Verse 15

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम्‌ ।असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥  

Though He perceives all sense-objects, yet He is devoid of the senses. He is unattached to anything, and yet He is the sustainer of all. Although He is without attributes, yet He is the enjoyer of the three modes of material nature.


Chapter 13,  Verse 16

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च ।सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत्‌ ॥  

He exists outside and inside all living beings, those that are moving and not moving. He is subtle, and hence, He is incomprehensible. He is very far, but He is also very near.


Chapter 13,  Verse 17

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम्‌ । भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥  

 He is indivisible, yet He appears to be divided amongst living beings. Know the Supreme Entity to be the Sustainer, Annihilator, and Creator of all beings.


Chapter 13,  Verse 18

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते ।ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम्‌ ॥  

 He is the source of light in all luminaries, and is entirely beyond the darkness of ignorance. He is knowledge, the object of knowledge, and the goal of knowledge. He dwells within the hearts of all living beings.


Chapter 13,  Verse 19

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः ।मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥  

I have thus revealed to you the nature of the field, the meaning of knowledge, and the object of knowledge. Only My devotees can understand this in reality, and by doing so, they attain My divine nature.


Chapter 13,  Verse 20

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्‌यनादी उभावपि ।विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसम्भवान्‌ ॥  

 Know that prakṛiti (material nature) and puruṣh (the individual souls) are both beginningless. Also know that all transformations of the body and the three modes of nature are produced by material energy.


Chapter 13,  Verse 21

कार्यकरणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥  

In the matter of creation, the material energy is responsible for cause and effect; in the matter of experiencing happiness and distress, the individual soul is declared responsible.


Chapter 13,  Verse 22

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्‍क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान्‌ ।कारणं गुणसंगोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥  

When the puruṣh (individual soul) seated in prakṛiti (the material energy) desires to enjoy the three guṇas, attachment to them becomes the cause of its birth in superior and inferior wombs.


Chapter 13,  Verse 23

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः । परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥  

Within the body also resides the Supreme Lord. He is said to be the Witness, the Permitter, the Supporter, Transcendental Enjoyer, the ultimate Controller, and the Paramātmā (Supreme Soul).


Chapter 13,  Verse 24

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह ।सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥  

 Those who understand the truth about Supreme Soul, the individual soul, material nature, and the interaction of the three modes of nature will not take birth here again. They will be liberated regardless of their present condition.


Chapter 13,  Verse 25

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना । अन्ये साङ्‍ख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥  

 Some try to perceive the Supreme Soul within their hearts through meditation, and others try to do so through the cultivation of knowledge, while still others strive to attain that realization by the path of action.


Chapter 13,  Verse 26

अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते । तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः ॥ 

There are still others who are unaware of these spiritual paths, but they hear from others and begin worshipping the Supreme Lord. By such devotion to hearing from saints, they too can gradually cross over the ocean of birth and death.


Chapter 13,  Verse 27

यावत्सञ्जायते किञ्चित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्‍गमम्‌ । क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥  

O best of the Bharatas, whatever moving or unmoving being you see in existence, know it to be a combination of the field of activities and the knower of the field.


Chapter 13,  Verse 28

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम्‌ ।विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥  

They alone truly see, who perceive the Paramātmā (Supreme Soul) accompanying the soul in all beings, and who understand both to be imperishable in this perishable body.


Chapter 13,  Verse 29

समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम्‌ ।न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम्‌ ॥  

Those, who see God as the Supreme Soul equally present everywhere and in all living beings, do not degrade themselves by their mind. Thereby, they reach the supreme destination.


Chapter 13,  Verse 30

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः ।यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ॥  
They alone truly see who understand that all actions (of the body) are performed by material nature, while the embodied soul actually does nothing.
यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति । तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा ॥ 
When they see the diverse variety of living beings situated in the same material nature, and understand all of them to be born from it, they attain the realization of Brahman.
अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः ।शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥  
The Supreme Soul is imperishable, without beginning, and devoid of any material qualities, O son of Kunti. Although situated within the body, It neither acts, nor is It tainted by material energy.
यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते । सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥ 
Space holds everything within it, but being subtle, does not get contaminated by what it holds. Similarly, though its consciousness pervades the body, the soul is not affected by the attributes of the body.
यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः । क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥ 
Just as one sun illumines the entire solar system, so does the individual soul illumine the entire body (with consciousness).
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम्‌ ॥  
Those who perceive with the eyes of knowledge the difference between the body and the knower of the body, and the process of release from material nature, attain the supreme destination.

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